Cavaliers as Companions
August / September 2019
Edited by Dennis & Tina Homes


In quite a lot of books and articles it is often stated that Ruby toy spaniels did not emerge until the early part of the nineteenth century. This assumption was probably based on the fact that in many of the old masters it is only Blenheims, Tricolours and Black and Tans that are depicted in these paintings. It was assumed that rubies appeared due to out-crossing with another breed or by mutation. However, there are a few paintings around that show that rubies have been around for a very long time. In the National Gallery in London there is a large painting by the Italian artiste Pisanello called The Vision of Saint Eustace. It shows a St Eustace hunting on horseback with a pack of dogs including greyhound types. At the very bottom of the painting, running alongside the horse, are two small spaniel type dogs that are ruby red in colour. This was painted in 1438 and below is a detail from that painting.

Detail from The Vision Of Saint Eustace

spaniel owned by Lady Knollys
This picture was painted around 1550 by Steven van der Muelen and is believed to be spaniel owned by Lady Knollys a first cousin, (albeit illegitimately), of Queen Elizabeth I.

Typical pose painted by C. Fulton
Above is a ruby in a very typical pose painted by C. Fulton in the mid nineteenth century.

Painting by Samuel Bough
A longer nosed ruby with a more flatter faced Tricolour painted by Samuel Bough in 1850. It was around this period when the fashion for short faced toy dogs emerged and there was indeed out crossing to flat faced oriental breeds. This how the King Charles Spaniel came about.

Painting by Bernard de Gempt.
Another painting from the mid 1800s, this time by the Dutch artist Bernard de Gempt.


Laughing CavalierCavalier as Laughing Cavalier
"The Laughing Cavalier" painted by Frans Hals in 1624 is claimed to be one of the finest example of Baroque portrait paintings. Little wonder a ‘canine’ Cavalier had to get in the act!


In recent years foxes have become more and more urbanized and are therefore more in contact with dogs. As well as being potential carriers of mange and other diseases that can affect dogs they are also carriers of a potential parasite called Angiostrongylus. Recent research has found that nearly 20% of foxes are infected. It has also been found that almost three quarters of foxes in the Greater London area are affected. It is important that dog owners do not leave dog toys, food or water bowls out in their gardens which may attract foxes which often go in back gardens during the night. Any waste food should be thoroughly wrapped before being placed in rubbish bins so not to attract foxes.


The heatwave that we have experienced this July has been the highest on record and throughout Europe temperatures have really soared. Experts have predicted that heatwaves like this are expected to become the norm over the coming years. During a heat wave or prolonged period of very warm weather it is of vital importance to constantly check the welfare of your dog. The average temperature of a human is 98.6°F while the average temperature of a dog is 101°F. However, the normal temperature of a healthy dog may vary from 99°F to 102.5°F. Therefore, you will find that a dog can become affected by high temperatures way before a human. Here are a few things to do during hot weather.

Make sure that drinking water is always available and remember that overweight dogs are at higher risk for dehydration. Carry a bottle of water with you when out walking with your dog.

Take your dog for walks early in the morning or late in the evening when things are much cooler.

Never leave your dog in a parked car as the vehicle can become extremely hot in a very short space of time. In the car, as the air temperature rises, the dog is unable to cool itself due to the lack of moisture and the ambient air temperature becoming hotter than the dog’s tongue, and it is via panting and its tongue that the dog cools himself. If you are out on a long journey with your dog do ensure that the air conditioning is on and the dog is kept cool. If the dog is in a cage at the back of your car it may also be a good idea to cover it with a foil ‘space blanket’ which helps to reflect the sunlight away.

Make sure that there are shady spots in the garden where your dog can go to keep cool. Also keep a fan nearby indoors if you do not have air conditioning.

Watch for signs of dehydration. Dogs can’t sweat. They cool off by panting, so an overheated dog will drool excessively. It will become lethargic, its eyes will be bloodshot, and it may appear a little pale. If you lift its skin, it will take longer than usual for the skin to fall back into place. If your dog does start to become overheated spray him with some cold (but not icy) water. But do remember that dogs cool from the bottom up. Make sure to spray the paws and stomach, not just the top of the dog, when spraying it with water. A wet towel does more good if your dog can lie on it rather than just draped over him.


Summer is a great time to go out for long treks with your dog but accidents can very easily happen, so it is always advisable to have some first aid items with you in case of an emergency. Many large pet stores sell first aid kits for dogs and some are quite compact that they can easily be attached to a belt or clipped on to a rucksack.

If you wish to make up your own kit here is a list of some of the essential items that you should include. Scissors, Sterile eye wash, tweezers, a tick remover tool, a nail trimmer, gauze bandaging, tape, roll gauze – used for bandaging and an aid to stop bleeding and padding for splints, antiseptic wash or wipes and plastic gloves. In the case of an emergency it is essential that you contact or get to a vet as quickly as possible but with small minor injuries some on the spot first aid is ideal until you can get to a vet.

Cuts to the foot is one of the most common injuries that a dog can suffer from. Quite often it is caused by running on broken glass or a sharp stone. A cut to the pads can bleed quite profusely so if possible clean the wound first with some diluted disinfectant or antiseptic wash and then wrap the area with cotton wool and bandage. Keep the bandage reasonably tight but not over tight that it cuts off the blood supply.

Stings. If bitten by an insect the first sight is usually a swelling which can often come up rather quickly. Often it’s around the muzzle or on the paw as these areas are the most vulnerable. If possible try to remove the sting and then bathe the area with ice cold compresses. If caught early you can help reduce the swelling by giving half a Piriton tablet but ideally you should get veterinary attention as soon as possible.

Sore Eyes. If your dog gets a scratch to the eye or something in it such as a grass seed or even splashes of something like bleach then you need to get the dog to a vet as a matter of urgency as eye problems can very quickly develop into something quite serious. The only thing that you can do in the meantime is to try to flush the eye out with lukewarm water.

Heat Stroke. This can easily develop in hot weather so it is advisable to walk your dog early in the day or in the evening during very hot weather. If a dog does collapse with heatstroke you should get him into a shady area and wrap him in cold, wet towels and try to provide a breeze either naturally or with a fan. Try to get him to drink small amounts of cold water.


Fleas can indeed pose a significant risk to dogs and also to people. They live off of the blood of mammals and their bites can cause health issues. None of us wants to find fleas on our dogs, so there are a few basics things that you should know about the risks, prevention and treatment of fleas which will help you protect your dog from the threat.

The flea is a tiny wingless insect with a hard and laterally flat body designed to easily navigate through pet hair, legs designed for jumping great distances, and mouthparts designed to suck blood. This external parasite feeds upon the blood of a host, usually a mammal. Its life cycle comprises of four stages.

Firstly, an Egg. An adult female flea can lay up to 40 eggs a day. The eggs are laid on the host, but will dry and fall off that host into the environment such as pet bedding, carpet and soft furnishings. An egg usually hatches within two days.

The next stage is the Larva: The larvae emerges from the egg and these tiny creatures feed upon flea faeces which mainly comprise of dried animal blood. The larva goes through three moults before it becomes able to spin a cocoon and enter the pupal stage. The larval stage could last from five days to two weeks.

Next is the Pupa: Once in the cocoon, the larva begins its transformation into the adult flea. The cocoons are almost indestructible and attract dirt and debris. Pupa can remain dormant in the environment for many months. Fleas in the pupa stage will not emerge until they sense a host. They are able to do this by sensing factors like warmth, vibration and carbon dioxide.

Finally we have the Adult Flea: A fully-developed flea only emerges from its cocoon when a host is available. The newly-emerged flea jumps on the host right away and begins the blood meal. A female flea will begin to lay eggs within a day or two of her first blood meal. She defecates blood from her host that will fall off the host along with the eggs, re-starting the life cycle. Adult fleas can live for about 4–6 weeks depending on the environment.

The best way to detect fleas is by using a flea comb. The teeth on these small combs are very close together and designed to travel through hair, picking up everything on the coat. Use the comb all over your dog’s body, but pay close attention to the lower back around the tail, as this is a common area for fleas. If you find no fleas but do see tiny pieces of black debris, this may be flea dirt. Flea dirt is the faecal material of fleas and consists mainly of dried animal blood. On close examination, flea dirt will have a reddish-black appearance. To confirm it is actually flea dirt, try putting the debris on a white paper towel and wetting it slightly. You will see that it runs reddish-brown.

Flea prevention is seen in many forms. Some work better than others. Some work well together, while others work against one another and should not be used at the same time. Be sure to talk to your vet about the best options for you and your pet. Spray type treatments such as Advantage and Frontline are distributed in the dog’s natural skin oils and work to kill adult fleas. Some have additional ingredients that sterilize fleas. Typically, the spot-on treatments need to be applied monthly. They are usually water-resistant, meaning you can bath your dog with a mild shampoo usually three days after applying the product. No more than one type of topical treatment should be used at the same time. However, a topical treatment can sometimes be used in conjunction with an oral treatment. Flea collars are relatively ineffective as they may kill some fleas around the area of the collar, but rarely prevent the fleas from jumping on other parts of the dog.

There are also a few natural alternative methods of dealing with fleas, but these should be used mainly as a means of prevention rather than dealing with an outbreak. Cedar oil, vinegar and garlic have been used quite effectively by many people. The theory behind using garlic is that it makes your dog taste bad to fleas. This has never been confirmed by scientists but many people swear by the use of garlic for flea control. Giving garlic does not make your dog smell to humans. We have been giving garlic to our dogs for many years and we can honestly say that we very rarely ever have a problem with fleas. Giving raw garlic over too long a period can be somewhat hazardous as dogs lack the enzyme needed to break down the chemical thiosulphate in garlic, which can cause gas, vomiting or diarrhoea. However it is perfectly safe to use proprietary brands of garlic tablets specially formulated for dogs such as Dorwest Herbs Garlic Tablets, Johnsons Garlic Tablets or Vetzyme Garlic Health Supplement for Dogs. A spray that often proves effective in repelling fleas, midges and mosquitos is Dyna-Mite. This is a citrus type spray which can be equally effective on humans if you spray your arms before attending open air summer evening barbecues when midges often bite!


Do dogs dream? Of course they do, but what exactly their dreams are like we will never know. Throughout the history of mankind dreams have always been shrouded in mystery. Messages from God or from angels, premonitions of the future. All sorts of things have over the centuries been attributed to dreams, but it was Sigmund Freud who really changed our whole concept on the process of dreaming. Much of Freud’s original theories are no longer regarded as true, but what experts do agree upon is the fact that dreaming is in some way the act of processing data from what has happened that day. In other words dreaming is the process of purging, cataloguing and reorganizing the memory banks of our brains.

Scientists have established the fact that dogs dream, but it has been noted that not all dogs dream in the same manner. In studies of their dream behaviour it has been found that large dogs such as Great Danes dream roughly every 90 minutes while small toy breeds tend to dream as often as every 20 minutes. People often see dogs wagging their tails or moving their legs as if chasing something while fast asleep. Dreams are a part of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and like humans dogs also go into REM sleep and it is during this period that sleep barking and tail twitching takes place.

When we dream our brain is processing the things we have experienced. Despite numerous studies on dog behaviour no one can really say what is going on in a dog’s mind when it dreams. Some people believe that if a dog shakes or trembles while asleep it’s reliving some fear or hardship. There have been many owners of rescue dogs that have noticed their dog shaking violently whilst asleep. Some dog experts have observed that young puppies may shake while asleep when first separated from their mother and litter mates. This usually stops after a few days. Many pet owners have noticed their dog lying there asleep but with their front paws almost racing away and have speculated that the dog is dreaming about chasing something. This could true, but we will never know.

One interesting point is that people who have been abused or suffered extreme trauma may have flashbacks in the form of bad dreams and nightmares. However, experts have found that abused and neglected dogs do not seem to suffer this and actually appear to dream far less than dogs that have been kept in a stable and friendly environment. The reason for this is unknown and remains a mystery.

Devoted CavalierPart Of The Family


Dogs have been considered man’s best friend for thousands of years and it’s easy to see why; they’ve protected us, hunted by our side, herded livestock, saved lives, assisted the disabled, and served in the police and military. Most of all, they have established themselves as loyal and faithful companions. We cater to all their needs and once we have discovered how to gain a dog’s trust they offer unconditional love.

Dogs have a special chemistry with humans that goes back many tens of thousands of years. In an evolutionary time-frame dogs were descended from wolves so recently that they remain wolves in all biological essentials, including their social behavior. Wolf packs have some intriguing parallels with human families insofar as they are territorial, they hunt cooperatively and pack members are emotionally bonded and greet each other enthusiastically after they have been separated.

The social adaptations of dogs and humans are similar enough that dogs can live perfectly happy lives surrounded by humans and vice versa. Dogs are pampered with the best of food and medical care, frequently sleeping in their owners’ comfortable beds.

Why do people lavish so much care on a member of an alien species? A short answer is that on an emotional plane, families do not see the dog as alien. According to John Archer of the University of Central Lancashire, who has conducted a detailed study of dog-human relations from an evolutionary perspective, about 40% of owners identify their dog as a family member reflecting social compatibility between our two species.


Dogs are extraordinarily attentive and have an uncanny ability to predict what their owners will do, whether getting the dog a meal or preparing to go on a walk. Experiments show that dogs wolves can be astute readers of human body language using the direction of our gaze to locate hidden food a problem that is beyond chimps. Dogs also seem attuned to the emotional state of their masters and express contrition when the owner is annoyed, for example. Otherwise, the capacity to express affection – unconditionally – makes the dog a valued "family member."


Love at first nap!
"Love at first nap! The cute Cavalier is Benchmark Paddington bred by Barb Hoorman and owned by Pam and Marci in Texas. As you can see Paddington really loves snuggling up to the best big brother ever in Ben Nevis."

Same Outfit


"Because dogs live in the present. Because dogs don’t hold grudges. Because dogs let go of all their anger daily, hourly, and never let it fester. They absolve and forgive with each passing minute. Every turn of a corner is the opportunity for a clean slate. Every bounce of a ball brings joy and the promise of a fresh chase."
Stephen Rowley

For further online Cavalier news and stories don’t forget to read some truly inspirational articles by logging on to the Pawz and Pray page at


If you have any questions about owning a Cavalier then click on the envelope to email Dennis and Tina who will only be too pleased to try and help you.

However please remember that we are not Vets or Lawyers so questions on these topics should be addressed to the professionals for advice.

Questions and answers that are of interest to other owners may be published on this page.

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